Renaissance is a period in Europe that changed the world history. It is considered to be the bridge between the Middle Ages and the modern world. Written in 1543, Copernicus’ work “De revolutionibus orbium coelestium” or “On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres the Renaissance and the Scientific Revolution,” launched the most outstanding period of the inventions and development of science in the whole world history. The Renaissance and the Scientific Revolution were accountable for the establishment of popular ideas such as heliocentric solar system. The Renaissance, with its roots in Christian philosophy, made a stable subtraction for the blooming of art, architecture, science. This essay will cover the contribution of the most famous scientists of this era and the ways the brand new scientific worldview changed the world.
Nicolaus Copernicus was a Renaissance polymath, who caused the “Copernican Revolution.” He contributed to the realm of astronomy. The scientist put the Sun at the center of the Universe while, previously, the Earth was considered to be the center. The latter system was called geocentric. Also, he declared that the planets move in the model of circles. There is more than one center in these circles. The center of the Earth is the center of the lunar sphere. Copernicus investigated that there are seven planets, and the Earth is one of them. Annual tilting of the axis and rotation are indispensable parts of the Earth’s motion. This conception changed the perception of people of those times. In ancient times, people looked up, and it was obvious to them that the celestial bodies rotated around the Earth. Those people had no scientific confirmation and were sure that the ground they stood was a constant and fixed flat area from which they observed the circling Universe. Copernicus destroyed this conception and built a new viewpoint.
Galileo Galilei followed Copernicus’s discoveries. He noticed that the Sun is the center of the solar system. He supported the heliocentric model of Nicolas Copernicus. As a result, Galilei was blamed for heresy and arrested. In addition, he found four moons of Jupiter and observed inequality of the Moon’s surface. This scientist is famous for creating the fourth principle of relativity.
Johannes Kepler is honored for the establishment of his own laws of planetary motion. His investigations added the explanation to the heliocentric theory. The scientist declared that the orbit of the planet is an ellipse. As a result, the Sun is at one of two focuses. A line linking a planet and the Sun passes even areas during an equal time. He was the first scientist who united the field of physics and astronomy.
Isaac Newton created a new conception of the Universe. Following discoveries of Galileo Galilei, he investigated that an object at rest will stay immovable unless affected by some outside power. The second law of motion says that the acceleration of a particle is closely connected to the force applied to a particle. The third law states that for every action there is the same opposite reaction. These laws of universal gravitation helped Newton count out the movement of the planets around the Sun. Isaac Newton used the scientific method in his work, which helped him to create a precise and constructive perception of the world.
According to Aristotelian geocentric or organic view of the Universe, the celestial bodies were the holes in the invisible wheels. The stars and planets moved around our planet in circles. There was a special mechanism, which was governed by the Prime Mover, God. Then, for the first time, Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, and Newton declared that the Universe could continue moving solely without the help of extraterrestrial power. The Universe is a separate body that is governed by mechanical forces. This conception changed people’s outlook worldwide and went against the traditional dogmas. To prove these discoveries, scholars used scientific methods, which helped establish the truth. People started using logic and facts that can be proved, not just a belief. As a result, the authority of the Church decreased. The heliocentric conception of Copernicus changed the organic worldview to one based on the Mechanical Structure of the World. The Nature of Aristotle was totally reconstructed. It was the Nature of Human Knowledge. People started reconsidering relations between God, Nature, and People as well as arguing about the nature of God. They become interested in whether He is rational or willful. The appearance of Science was re-conceptualized in Europe and then spread around the globe.
In conclusion, Copernicus, Galilei, Kepler, and Newton had a great impact on the field of astronomy. Moreover, their achievements and discoveries changed the worldview of people all over the world. They were first who started using scientific methods to prove their assumptions with facts.
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